The focus of the course is the concepts and techniques for solving the partial differential equations (PDE) that permeate various scientific disciplines. The emphasis is on nonlinear PDE. Applications include problems from fluid dynamics, electrical and mechanical engineering, materials science, quantum mechanics, etc.
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This course asks students to consider the ways in which social theorists, institutional reformers, and political revolutionaries in the 17th through 19th centuries seized upon insights developed in the natural sciences and mathematics to change themselves and the society in which they lived. Students study trials, art, literature and music to understand developments in Europe and its colonies in these two centuries. Covers works by Newton, Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau, Marx, and Darwin.
This undergraduate level course follows Algebra I. Topics include group representations, rings, ideals, fields, polynomial rings, modules, factorization, integers in quadratic number fields, field extensions, and Galois theory.
This course provides an introduction to the language of schemes, properties of morphisms, and sheaf cohomology. Together with 18.725 Algebraic Geometry, students gain an understanding of the basic notions and techniques of modern algebraic geometry.
In this second term of Algebraic Topology, the topics covered include fibrations, homotopy groups, the Hurewicz theorem, vector bundles, characteristic classes, cobordism, and possible further topics at the discretion of the instructor.
This course focuses on the Great Depression and World War II and how they led to a major reordering of American politics and society. We will examine how ordinary people experienced these crises and how those experiences changed their outlook on politics and the world around them.
This course provides a basic history of American social, economic, and political development from the colonial period through the Civil War. It examines the colonial heritages of Spanish and British America; the American Revolution and its impact; the establishment and growth of the new nation; and the Civil War, its background, character, and impact. Readings include writings of the period by J. Winthrop, T. Paine, T. Jefferson, J. Madison, W. H. Garrison, G. Fitzhugh, H. B. Stowe, and A. Lincoln.
This is a seminar course that explores the history of selected features of the physical environment of urban America. Among the features considered are parks, cemeteries, tenements, suburbs, zoos, skyscrapers, department stores, supermarkets, and amusement parks. The course gives students experience in working with primary documentation sources through its selection of readings and class discussions. Students then have the opportunity to apply this experience by researching their own historical questions and writing a term paper.
This course is a seminar on the history of institutions and institutional change in American cities from roughly 1850 to the present. Among the institutions to be looked at are political machines, police departments, courts, schools, prisons, public authorities, and universities. The focus of the course is on readings and discussions.
Analysis I covers fundamentals of mathematical analysis: metric spaces, convergence of sequences and series, continuity, differentiability, Riemann integral, sequences and series of functions, uniformity, interchange of limit operations.
Continues 18.100, in the direction of manifolds and global analysis. Differentiable maps, inverse and implicit function theorems, n-dimensional Riemann integral, change of variables in multiple integrals, manifolds, differential forms, n-dimensional version of Stokes' theorem. 18.901 helpful but not required.
Laszlo Tisza was Professor of Physics Emeritus at MIT, where he began teaching in 1941. This online publication is a reproduction the original lecture notes for the course "Applied Geometric Algebra" taught by Professor Tisza in the Spring of 1976. Over the last 100 years, the mathematical tools employed by physicists have expanded considerably, from differential calculus, vector algebra and geometry, to advanced linear algebra, tensors, Hilbert space, spinors, Group theory and many others. These sophisticated tools provide powerful machinery for describing the physical world, however, their physical interpretation is often not intuitive. These course notes represent Prof. Tisza's attempt at bringing conceptual clarity and unity to the application and interpretation of these advanced mathematical tools. In particular, there is an emphasis on the unifying role that Group theory plays in classical, relativistic, and quantum physics. Prof. Tisza revisits many elementary problems with an advanced treatment in order to help develop the geometrical intuition for the algebraic machinery that may carry over to more advanced problems. The lecture notes came to MIT OpenCourseWare by way of Samuel Gasster, '77 (Course 18), who had taken the course and kept a copy of the lecture notes for his own reference. He dedicated dozens of hours of his own time to convert the typewritten notes into LaTeX files and then publication-ready PDFs. You can read about his motivation for wanting to see these notes published in his Preface below. Professor Tisza kindly gave his permission to make these notes available on MIT OpenCourseWare.
The subject of enumerative combinatorics deals with counting the number of elements of a finite set. For instance, the number of ways to write a positive integer n as a sum of positive integers, taking order into account, is 2n-1. We will be concerned primarily with bijective proofs, i.e., showing that two sets have the same number of elements by exhibiting a bijection (one-to-one correspondence) between them. This is a subject which requires little mathematical background to reach the frontiers of current research. Students will therefore have the opportunity to do original research. It might be necessary to limit enrollment.
The Art of the Probable" addresses the history of scientific ideas, in particular the emergence and development of mathematical probability. But it is neither meant to be a history of the exact sciences per se nor an annex to, say, the Course 6 curriculum in probability and statistics. Rather, our objective is to focus on the formal, thematic, and rhetorical features that imaginative literature shares with texts in the history of probability. These shared issues include (but are not limited to): the attempt to quantify or otherwise explain the presence of chance, risk, and contingency in everyday life; the deduction of causes for phenomena that are knowable only in their effects; and, above all, the question of what it means to think and act rationally in an uncertain world. Our course therefore aims to broaden students’ appreciation for and understanding of how literature interacts with--both reflecting upon and contributing to--the scientific understanding of the world. We are just as centrally committed to encouraging students to regard imaginative literature as a unique contribution to knowledge in its own right, and to see literary works of art as objects that demand and richly repay close critical analysis. It is our hope that the course will serve students well if they elect to pursue further work in Literature or other discipline in SHASS, and also enrich or complement their understanding of probability and statistics in other scientific and engineering subjects they elect to take.
This course covers sensing and measurement for quantitative molecular/cell/tissue analysis, in terms of genetic, biochemical, and biophysical properties. Methods include light and fluorescence microscopies; electro-mechanical probes such as atomic force microscopy, laser and magnetic traps, and MEMS devices; and the application of statistics, probability and noise analysis to experimental data.
Published in 1991 by Wellesley-Cambridge Press, the book is a useful resource for educators and self-learners alike. It is well organized, covers single variable and multivariable calculus in depth, and is rich with applications.
In addition to the Textbook, there is also an online Instructor's Manual and a student Study Guide. Prof. Strang has also developed a related series of videos, Highlights of Calculus, on the basic ideas of calculus.
Published in 1991 and still in print from Wellesley-Cambridge Press, the book is a useful resource for educators and self-learners alike. It is well organized, covers single variable and multivariable calculus in depth, and is rich with applications. There is also an online Instructor's Manual and a student Study Guide. Prof. Strang has also developed a related series of videos, Highlights of Calculus, on the basic ideas of calculus.
Calculus Revisited is a series of videos and related resources that covers the materials normally found in freshman- and sophomore-level introductory mathematics courses. Complex Variables, Differential Equations, and Linear Algebra is the third course in the series, consisting of 20 Videos, 3 Study Guides, and a set of Supplementary Notes. Students should have mastered the first two courses in the series (Single Variable Calculus and Multivariable Calculus) before taking this course. The series was first released in 1972, but equally valuable today for students who are learning these topics for the first time.
Calculus Revisited is a series of videos and related resources that covers the materials normally found in a freshman-level introductory calculus course. The series was first released in 1970 as a way for people to review the essentials of calculus. It is equally valuable for students who are learning calculus for the first time.
Calculus Revisited is a series of videos and related resources that covers the materials normally found in freshman- and sophomore-level introductory mathematics courses. Multivariable Calculus is the second course in the series, consisting of 26 videos, 4 Study Guides, and a set of Supplementary Notes. The series was first released in 1971 as a way for people to review the essentials of calculus. It is equally valuable for students who are learning calculus for the first time.
This online textbook provides an overview of Calculus in clear, easy to understand language designed for the non-mathematician.
This is a variation on 18.02 Multivariable Calculus. It covers the same topics as in 18.02, but with more focus on mathematical concepts.
Calculus with Theory, covers the same material as 18.01 (Single Variable Calculus), but at a deeper and more rigorous level. It emphasizes careful reasoning and understanding of proofs. The course assumes knowledge of elementary calculus.
The goal of this class is to prove that category theory is a powerful language for understanding and formalizing common scientific models. The power of the language will be tested by its ability to penetrate into taken-for-granted ideas, either by exposing existing weaknesses or flaws in our understanding, or by highlighting hidden commonalities across scientific fields.
This course surveys the social science literature on civil war. Students will study the origins of civil war, discuss variables that affect the duration of civil war, and examine the termination of conflict. This course is highly interdisciplinary and covers a wide variety of cases.
This course analyzes combinatorial problems and methods for their solution. Topics include: enumeration, generating functions, recurrence relations, construction of bijections, introduction to graph theory, network algorithms, and extremal combinatorics.
Thorough treatment of linear programming and combinatorial optimization. Topics include network flow, matching theory, matroid optimization, and approximation algorithms for NP-hard problems. 18.310 helpful but not required.
Content varies from year to year. An introduction to some of the major topics of present day combinatorics, in particular enumeration, partially ordered sets, and generating functions. This is a graduate-level course in combinatorial theory. The content varies year to year, according to the interests of the instructor and the students. The topic of this course is hyperplane arrangements, including background material from the theory of posets and matroids.
Content varies from year to year. An introduction to some of the major topics of present day combinatorics, in particular enumeration, partially ordered sets, and generating functions. This course serves as an introduction to major topics of modern enumerative and algebraic combinatorics with emphasis on partition identities, young tableaux bijections, spanning trees in graphs, and random generation of combinatorial objects. There is some discussion of various applications and connections to other fields.
In this course students will learn about Noetherian rings and modules, Hilbert basis theorem, Cayley-Hamilton theorem, integral dependence, Noether normalization, the Nullstellensatz, localization, primary decomposition, DVRs, filtrations, length, Artin rings, Hilbert polynomials, tensor products, and dimension theory.
This course covers the analytical, graphical, and numerical methods supporting the analysis and design of integrated biological systems. Topics include modularity and abstraction in biological systems, mathematical encoding of detailed physical problems, numerical methods for solving the dynamics of continuous and discrete chemical systems, statistics and probability in dynamic systems, applied local and global optimization, simple feedback and control analysis, statistics and probability in pattern recognition.
This course covers the design, construction, and testing of field robotic systems, through team projects with each student responsible for a specific subsystem. Projects focus on electronics, instrumentation, and machine elements. Design for operation in uncertain conditions is a focus point, with ocean waves and marine structures as a central theme. Topics include basic statistics, linear systems, Fourier transforms, random processes, spectra, ethics in engineering practice, and extreme events with applications in design.
This is the first semester of a two-semester sequence on Differential Analysis. Topics include fundamental solutions for elliptic; hyperbolic and parabolic differential operators; method of characteristics; review of Lebesgue integration; distributions; fourier transform; homogeneous distributions; asymptotic methods.
In this course, we study elliptic Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) with variable coefficients building up to the minimal surface equation. Then we study Fourier and harmonic analysis, emphasizing applications of Fourier analysis. We will see some applications in combinatorics / number theory, like the Gauss circle problem, but mostly focus on applications in PDE, like the Calderon-Zygmund inequality for the Laplacian, and the Strichartz inequality for the Schrodinger equation. In the last part of the course, we study solutions to the linear and the non-linear Schrodinger equation. All through the course, we work on the craft of proving estimates.
This course is an introduction to differential geometry. The course itself is mathematically rigorous, but still emphasizes concrete aspects of geometry, centered on the notion of curvature.
Double affine Hecke algebras (DAHA), also called Cherednik algebras, and their representations appear in many contexts: integrable systems (Calogero-Moser and Ruijsenaars models), algebraic geometry (Hilbert schemes), orthogonal polynomials, Lie theory, quantum groups, etc. In this course we will review the basic theory of DAHA and their representations, emphasizing their connections with other subjects and open problems.
Seminar on a selected topic from Renaissance architecture. Requires original research and presentation of a report. The aim of this course is to highlight some technical aspects of the classical tradition in architecture that have so far received only sporadic attention. It is well known that quantification has always been an essential component of classical design: proportional systems in particular have been keenly investigated. But the actual technical tools whereby quantitative precision was conceived, represented, transmitted, and implemented in pre-modern architecture remain mostly unexplored. By showing that a dialectical relationship between architectural theory and data-processing technologies was as crucial in the past as it is today, this course hopes to promote a more historically aware understanding of the current computer-induced transformations in architectural design.
This course covers the role of physics and physicists during the 20th century, focusing on Einstein, Oppenheimer, and Feynman. Beyond just covering the scientific developments, institutional, cultural, and political contexts will also be examined.
This course is an investigation of the Roman empire of Augustus, the Frankish empire of Charlemagne, and the English empire in the age of the Hundred Years War. Students examine different types of evidence, read across a variety of disciplines, and develop skills to identify continuities and changes in ancient and medieval societies. Each term this course is different, looking at different materials from a variety of domains to explore ancient and mideveal studies. This version is a capture of the course as it was taught in 2012, and does not reflect how it is taught currently.
This subject provides an introduction to fluid mechanics. Students are introduced to and become familiar with all relevant physical properties and fundamental laws governing the behavior of fluids and learn how to solve a variety of problems of interest to civil and environmental engineers. While there is a chance to put skills from Calculus and Differential Equations to use in this subject, the emphasis is on physical understanding of why a fluid behaves the way it does. The aim is to make the students think as a fluid. In addition to relating a working knowledge of fluid mechanics, the subject prepares students for higher-level subjects in fluid dynamics.