The focus of the course is the concepts and techniques for solving the partial differential equations (PDE) that permeate various scientific disciplines. The emphasis is on nonlinear PDE. Applications include problems from fluid dynamics, electrical and mechanical engineering, materials science, quantum mechanics, etc.
This course asks students to consider the ways in which social theorists, institutional reformers, and political revolutionaries in the 17th through 19th centuries seized upon insights developed in the natural sciences and mathematics to change themselves and the society in which they lived. Students study trials, art, literature and music to understand developments in Europe and its colonies in these two centuries. Covers works by Newton, Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau, Marx, and Darwin.
This undergraduate level course follows Algebra I. Topics include group representations, rings, ideals, fields, polynomial rings, modules, factorization, integers in quadratic number fields, field extensions, and Galois theory.
This course provides an introduction to the language of schemes, properties of morphisms, and sheaf cohomology. Together with 18.725 Algebraic Geometry, students gain an understanding of the basic notions and techniques of modern algebraic geometry.
This course focuses on the Great Depression and World War II and how they led to a major reordering of American politics and society. We will examine how ordinary people experienced these crises and how those experiences changed their outlook on politics and the world around them.
This course provides a basic history of American social, economic, and political development from the colonial period through the Civil War. It examines the colonial heritages of Spanish and British America; the American Revolution and its impact; the establishment and growth of the new nation; and the Civil War, its background, character, and impact. Readings include writings of the period by J. Winthrop, T. Paine, T. Jefferson, J. Madison, W. H. Garrison, G. Fitzhugh, H. B. Stowe, and A. Lincoln.
This is a seminar course that explores the history of selected features of the physical environment of urban America. Among the features considered are parks, cemeteries, tenements, suburbs, zoos, skyscrapers, department stores, supermarkets, and amusement parks. The course gives students experience in working with primary documentation sources through its selection of readings and class discussions. Students then have the opportunity to apply this experience by researching their own historical questions and writing a term paper.
This course is a seminar on the history of institutions and institutional change in American cities from roughly 1850 to the present. Among the institutions to be looked at are political machines, police departments, courts, schools, prisons, public authorities, and universities. The focus of the course is on readings and discussions.
Analysis I covers fundamentals of mathematical analysis: metric spaces, convergence of sequences and series, continuity, differentiability, Riemann integral, sequences and series of functions, uniformity, interchange of limit operations.
Continues 18.100, in the direction of manifolds and global analysis. Differentiable maps, inverse and implicit function theorems, n-dimensional Riemann integral, change of variables in multiple integrals, manifolds, differential forms, n-dimensional version of Stokes' theorem. 18.901 helpful but not required.
Laszlo Tisza was Professor of Physics Emeritus at MIT, where he began teaching in 1941. This online publication is a reproduction the original lecture notes for the course "Applied Geometric Algebra" taught by Professor Tisza in the Spring of 1976. Over the last 100 years, the mathematical tools employed by physicists have expanded considerably, from differential calculus, vector algebra and geometry, to advanced linear algebra, tensors, Hilbert space, spinors, Group theory and many others. These sophisticated tools provide powerful machinery for describing the physical world, however, their physical interpretation is often not intuitive. These course notes represent Prof. Tisza's attempt at bringing conceptual clarity and unity to the application and interpretation of these advanced mathematical tools. In particular, there is an emphasis on the unifying role that Group theory plays in classical, relativistic, and quantum physics. Prof. Tisza revisits many elementary problems with an advanced treatment in order to help develop the geometrical intuition for the algebraic machinery that may carry over to more advanced problems. The lecture notes came to MIT OpenCourseWare by way of Samuel Gasster, '77 (Course 18), who had taken the course and kept a copy of the lecture notes for his own reference. He dedicated dozens of hours of his own time to convert the typewritten notes into LaTeX files and then publication-ready PDFs. You can read about his motivation for wanting to see these notes published in his Preface below. Professor Tisza kindly gave his permission to make these notes available on MIT OpenCourseWare.
The subject of enumerative combinatorics deals with counting the number of elements of a finite set. For instance, the number of ways to write a positive integer n as a sum of positive integers, taking order into account, is 2n-1. We will be concerned primarily with bijective proofs, i.e., showing that two sets have the same number of elements by exhibiting a bijection (one-to-one correspondence) between them. This is a subject which requires little mathematical background to reach the frontiers of current research. Students will therefore have the opportunity to do original research. It might be necessary to limit enrollment.
The Art of the Probable" addresses the history of scientific ideas, in particular the emergence and development of mathematical probability. But it is neither meant to be a history of the exact sciences per se nor an annex to, say, the Course 6 curriculum in probability and statistics. Rather, our objective is to focus on the formal, thematic, and rhetorical features that imaginative literature shares with texts in the history of probability. These shared issues include (but are not limited to): the attempt to quantify or otherwise explain the presence of chance, risk, and contingency in everyday life; the deduction of causes for phenomena that are knowable only in their effects; and, above all, the question of what it means to think and act rationally in an uncertain world. Our course therefore aims to broaden students’ appreciation for and understanding of how literature interacts with--both reflecting upon and contributing to--the scientific understanding of the world. We are just as centrally committed to encouraging students to regard imaginative literature as a unique contribution to knowledge in its own right, and to see literary works of art as objects that demand and richly repay close critical analysis. It is our hope that the course will serve students well if they elect to pursue further work in Literature or other discipline in SHASS, and also enrich or complement their understanding of probability and statistics in other scientific and engineering subjects they elect to take.
This course covers sensing and measurement for quantitative molecular/cell/tissue analysis, in terms of genetic, biochemical, and biophysical properties. Methods include light and fluorescence microscopies; electro-mechanical probes such as atomic force microscopy, laser and magnetic traps, and MEMS devices; and the application of statistics, probability and noise analysis to experimental data.
Published in 1991 by Wellesley-Cambridge Press, the book is a useful resource for educators and self-learners alike. It is well organized, covers single variable and multivariable calculus in depth, and is rich with applications.
In addition to the Textbook, there is also an online Instructor's Manual and a student Study Guide. Prof. Strang has also developed a related series of videos, Highlights of Calculus, on the basic ideas of calculus.
Published in 1991 and still in print from Wellesley-Cambridge Press, the book is a useful resource for educators and self-learners alike. It is well organized, covers single variable and multivariable calculus in depth, and is rich with applications. There is also an online Instructor's Manual and a student Study Guide. Prof. Strang has also developed a related series of videos, Highlights of Calculus, on the basic ideas of calculus.
Calculus Revisited is a series of videos and related resources that covers the materials normally found in freshman- and sophomore-level introductory mathematics courses. Complex Variables, Differential Equations, and Linear Algebra is the third course in the series, consisting of 20 Videos, 3 Study Guides, and a set of Supplementary Notes. Students should have mastered the first two courses in the series (Single Variable Calculus and Multivariable Calculus) before taking this course. The series was first released in 1972, but equally valuable today for students who are learning these topics for the first time.
Calculus Revisited is a series of videos and related resources that covers the materials normally found in a freshman-level introductory calculus course. The series was first released in 1970 as a way for people to review the essentials of calculus. It is equally valuable for students who are learning calculus for the first time.
Calculus Revisited is a series of videos and related resources that covers the materials normally found in freshman- and sophomore-level introductory mathematics courses. Multivariable Calculus is the second course in the series, consisting of 26 videos, 4 Study Guides, and a set of Supplementary Notes. The series was first released in 1971 as a way for people to review the essentials of calculus. It is equally valuable for students who are learning calculus for the first time.
This online textbook provides an overview of Calculus in clear, easy to understand language designed for the non-mathematician.
This is a variation on 18.02 Multivariable Calculus. It covers the same topics as in 18.02, but with more focus on mathematical concepts.
Calculus with Theory, covers the same material as 18.01 (Single Variable Calculus), but at a deeper and more rigorous level. It emphasizes careful reasoning and understanding of proofs. The course assumes knowledge of elementary calculus.
The goal of this class is to prove that category theory is a powerful language for understanding and formalizing common scientific models. The power of the language will be tested by its ability to penetrate into taken-for-granted ideas, either by exposing existing weaknesses or flaws in our understanding, or by highlighting hidden commonalities across scientific fields.
This course surveys the social science literature on civil war. Students will study the origins of civil war, discuss variables that affect the duration of civil war, and examine the termination of conflict. This course is highly interdisciplinary and covers a wide variety of cases.
This course analyzes combinatorial problems and methods for their solution. Topics include: enumeration, generating functions, recurrence relations, construction of bijections, introduction to graph theory, network algorithms, and extremal combinatorics.
Thorough treatment of linear programming and combinatorial optimization. Topics include network flow, matching theory, matroid optimization, and approximation algorithms for NP-hard problems. 18.310 helpful but not required.
Content varies from year to year. An introduction to some of the major topics of present day combinatorics, in particular enumeration, partially ordered sets, and generating functions. This is a graduate-level course in combinatorial theory. The content varies year to year, according to the interests of the instructor and the students. The topic of this course is hyperplane arrangements, including background material from the theory of posets and matroids.
Content varies from year to year. An introduction to some of the major topics of present day combinatorics, in particular enumeration, partially ordered sets, and generating functions. This course serves as an introduction to major topics of modern enumerative and algebraic combinatorics with emphasis on partition identities, young tableaux bijections, spanning trees in graphs, and random generation of combinatorial objects. There is some discussion of various applications and connections to other fields.
In this course students will learn about Noetherian rings and modules, Hilbert basis theorem, Cayley-Hamilton theorem, integral dependence, Noether normalization, the Nullstellensatz, localization, primary decomposition, DVRs, filtrations, length, Artin rings, Hilbert polynomials, tensor products, and dimension theory.
This course covers the analytical, graphical, and numerical methods supporting the analysis and design of integrated biological systems. Topics include modularity and abstraction in biological systems, mathematical encoding of detailed physical problems, numerical methods for solving the dynamics of continuous and discrete chemical systems, statistics and probability in dynamic systems, applied local and global optimization, simple feedback and control analysis, statistics and probability in pattern recognition.
This course covers the design, construction, and testing of field robotic systems, through team projects with each student responsible for a specific subsystem. Projects focus on electronics, instrumentation, and machine elements. Design for operation in uncertain conditions is a focus point, with ocean waves and marine structures as a central theme. Topics include basic statistics, linear systems, Fourier transforms, random processes, spectra, ethics in engineering practice, and extreme events with applications in design.
This is the first semester of a two-semester sequence on Differential Analysis. Topics include fundamental solutions for elliptic; hyperbolic and parabolic differential operators; method of characteristics; review of Lebesgue integration; distributions; fourier transform; homogeneous distributions; asymptotic methods.
In this course, we study elliptic Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) with variable coefficients building up to the minimal surface equation. Then we study Fourier and harmonic analysis, emphasizing applications of Fourier analysis. We will see some applications in combinatorics / number theory, like the Gauss circle problem, but mostly focus on applications in PDE, like the Calderon-Zygmund inequality for the Laplacian, and the Strichartz inequality for the Schrodinger equation. In the last part of the course, we study solutions to the linear and the non-linear Schrodinger equation. All through the course, we work on the craft of proving estimates.
This course is an introduction to differential geometry. The course itself is mathematically rigorous, but still emphasizes concrete aspects of geometry, centered on the notion of curvature.
Double affine Hecke algebras (DAHA), also called Cherednik algebras, and their representations appear in many contexts: integrable systems (Calogero-Moser and Ruijsenaars models), algebraic geometry (Hilbert schemes), orthogonal polynomials, Lie theory, quantum groups, etc. In this course we will review the basic theory of DAHA and their representations, emphasizing their connections with other subjects and open problems.
Seminar on a selected topic from Renaissance architecture. Requires original research and presentation of a report. The aim of this course is to highlight some technical aspects of the classical tradition in architecture that have so far received only sporadic attention. It is well known that quantification has always been an essential component of classical design: proportional systems in particular have been keenly investigated. But the actual technical tools whereby quantitative precision was conceived, represented, transmitted, and implemented in pre-modern architecture remain mostly unexplored. By showing that a dialectical relationship between architectural theory and data-processing technologies was as crucial in the past as it is today, this course hopes to promote a more historically aware understanding of the current computer-induced transformations in architectural design.
This course covers the role of physics and physicists during the 20th century, focusing on Einstein, Oppenheimer, and Feynman. Beyond just covering the scientific developments, institutional, cultural, and political contexts will also be examined.
This course is an investigation of the Roman empire of Augustus, the Frankish empire of Charlemagne, and the English empire in the age of the Hundred Years War. Students examine different types of evidence, read across a variety of disciplines, and develop skills to identify continuities and changes in ancient and medieval societies. Each term this course is different, looking at different materials from a variety of domains to explore ancient and mideveal studies. This version is a capture of the course as it was taught in 2012, and does not reflect how it is taught currently.
This subject provides an introduction to fluid mechanics. Students are introduced to and become familiar with all relevant physical properties and fundamental laws governing the behavior of fluids and learn how to solve a variety of problems of interest to civil and environmental engineers. While there is a chance to put skills from Calculus and Differential Equations to use in this subject, the emphasis is on physical understanding of why a fluid behaves the way it does. The aim is to make the students think as a fluid. In addition to relating a working knowledge of fluid mechanics, the subject prepares students for higher-level subjects in fluid dynamics.
Seminar on the creativity in art, science, and technology. Discussion of how these pursuits are jointly dependent on affective as well as cognitive elements in human nature. Feeling and imagination studied in relation to principles of idealization, consummation, and the aesthetic values that give meaning to science and technology as well as literature and the other arts. Readings in philosophy, psychology, and literature.
This course concentrates on close analysis and criticism of a wide range of films, including works from the early silent period, documentary and avant-garde films, European art cinema, and contemporary Hollywood fare. Through comparative reading of films from different eras and countries, students develop the skills to turn their in-depth analyses into interpretations and explore theoretical issues related to spectatorship. Syllabus varies from term to term, but usually includes such directors as Coppola, Eisentein, Fellini, Godard, Griffith, Hawks, Hitchcock, Kubrick, Kurosawa, Tarantino, Welles, Wiseman, and Zhang.
Continues 18.100. Roughly half the subject devoted to the theory of the Lebesgue integral with applications to probability, and half to Fourier series and Fourier integrals.
This course covers French politics, culture, and society from Louis XIV to Napoleon Bonaparte. Attention is given to the growth of the central state, the beginnings of a modern consumer society, the Enlightenment, the French Revolution, including its origins, and the rise and fall of Napoleon.
The basic properties of functions of one complex variable. Cauchy's theorem, holomorphic and meromorphic functions, residues, contour integrals, conformal mapping. Infinite series and products, the gamma function, the Mittag-Leffler theorem. Harmonic functions, Dirichlet's problem. This is an advanced undergraduate course dealing with calculus in one complex variable with geometric emphasis. Since the course Analysis I is a prerequisite, topological notions like compactness, connectedness, and related properties of continuous functions are taken for granted. This course offers biweekly problem sets with solutions, two term tests and a final exam, all with solutions.
Increasingly, political scientists are using game theory to analyze strategic interactions across many different settings. Each of the sub-fields, to differing degrees, has seen game theoretic concepts enter its vocabulary, and students entering the profession will need to understand the potential and limits of game theory. This course aims to give students an entry-level understanding of the basic concepts of game theory, and how these concepts have been applied to the study of political phenomena. Because an important component of game theory in political science and political economy is the analysis of substantive political phenomena, we will cover illustrative examples each week in combination with methodological developments. The political and economic phenomena that we will examine include legislative rules, nuclear deterrence, electoral competition, and imperfect markets.
This subject explores the legal history of the United States as a gendered system. It examines how women have shaped the meanings of American citizenship through pursuit of political rights such as suffrage, jury duty, and military service, how those political struggles have varied for across race, religion, and class, as well as how the legal system has shaped gender relations for both women and men through regulation of such issues as marriage, divorce, work, reproduction, and the family. The course readings will draw from primary and secondary materials in American history, as well as some court cases. However, the focus of the class is on the broader relationship between law and society, and no technical legal knowledge is required or assumed.
Introduction to discrete and computational geometry. Topics covered: planar graphs, geometric graphs, the theory of crossings, extremal graph theory, arrangements of curves and points in the plane (mainly pseudolines and pseudocircles), problems involving distances, Gallai-Sylvester-type problems, Davenport-Schinzel sequences. Emphasis on teaching methods in combinatorial geometry. Many results presented are recent, and include open problems.
This course is an intensive introduction to architectural design tools and process, and is taught through a series of short exercises. The conceptual basis of each exercise is in the interrogation of the geometric principles that lie at the core of each skill. Skills covered in this course range from techniques of hand drafting, to generation of 3D computer models, physical model-building, sketching, and diagramming. Weekly lectures and pin-ups address the conventions associated with modes of architectural representation and their capacity to convey ideas. This course is tailored and offered only to first-year M.Arch students.
A rigorous introduction designed for mathematicians into perturbative quantum field theory, using the language of functional integrals. Basics of classical field theory. Free quantum theories. Feynman diagrams. Renormalization theory. Local operators. Operator product expansion. Renormalization group equation. The goal is to discuss, using mathematical language, a number of basic notions and results of QFT that are necessary to understand talks and papers in QFT and string theory.
This is a second-semester graduate course on the geometry of manifolds. The main emphasis is on the geometry of symplectic manifolds, but the material also includes long digressions into complex geometry and the geometry of 4-manifolds, with special emphasis on topological considerations.
This course focuses on an in-depth reading of Principia Mathematica Philosophiae Naturalis by Isaac Newton, as well as several related commentaries and historical philosophical texts.
This course examines the history of MIT through the lens of the broader history of science and technology, and vice versa. The course covers the founding of MIT in 1861 and goes through the present, including such topics as William Barton Rogers, educational philosophy, biographies of MIT students and professors, intellectual and organizational development, the role of science, changing laboratories and practices, and MIT's relationship with Boston, the federal government, and industry. Assignments include short papers, presentations, and final paper. A number of classes are concurrent with the MIT150 Symposia.
This course offers an introduction to the history and historiography of science from ancient Greece to the present. It is designed to serve as an introduction for those who have no prior background in the field and to deepen the knowledge of those who already do. We will consider how the history of science has responded to its encounters with philosophy, sociology, economics, and anthropology. Our readings and discussions will focus on determining what makes particular works effective, understanding major contemporary trends and debates in the history of science, and establishing resources for further research.
This course covers the same material as Differential Equations (18.03) with more emphasis on theory. In addition, it treats mathematical aspects of ordinary differential equations such as existence theorems.
This course is an introduction to data cleaning, analysis and visualization. We will teach the basics of data analysis through concrete examples. You will learn how to take raw data, extract meaningful information, use statistical tools, and make visualizations. This was offered as a non-credit course during the Independent Activities Period (IAP), which is a special 4-week term at MIT that runs from the first week of January until the end of the month.
This course analyzes Russia's social, cultural, and political heritage in the 18th and 19th centuries, up to and including the Russian Revolution of 1917. It compares reforming and revolutionary impulses in the context of serfdom, the rise of the intelligentsia, and debates over capitalism. It focuses on historical and literary texts, especially the intersections between the two.
Selection of material from the following topics: calculus of variations (the first variation and the second variation); integral equations (Volterra equations; Fredholm equations, the Hilbert-Schmidt theorem); the Hilbert Problem and singular integral equations of Cauchy type; Wiener-Hopf Method and partial differential equations; Wiener-Hopf Method and integral equations; group theory.
This course is intended to assist undergraduates with learning the basics of programming in general and programming MATLAB in particular.
Analysis I in its various versions covers fundamentals of mathematical analysis: continuity, differentiability, some form of the Riemann integral, sequences and series of numbers and functions, uniform convergence with applications to interchange of limit operations, some point-set topology, including some work in Euclidean n-space. MIT students may choose to take one of three versions of 18.100: Option A (18.100A) chooses less abstract definitions and proofs, and gives applications where possible. Option B (18.100B) is more demanding and for students with more mathematical maturity; it places more emphasis from the beginning on point-set topology and n-space, whereas Option A is concerned primarily with analysis on the real line, saving for the last weeks work in 2-space (the plane) and its point-set topology. Option C (18.100C) is a 15-unit variant of Option B, with further instruction and practice in written and oral communication.
This course provides an overview of Asian American history and its relevance for contemporary issues. It covers the first wave of Asian immigration in the 19th century, the rise of anti-Asian movements, the experiences of Asian Americans during WWII, the emergence of the Asian American movement in the 1960s, and the new wave of post–1965 Asian immigration. The class examines the role these experiences played in the formation of Asian American ethnicity. The course addresses key societal issues such as racial stereotyping, media racism, affirmative action, the glass ceiling, the "model minority" syndrome, and anti-Asian harassment or violence. The course is taught in English.