Material Type:
High School
Lesson Plan
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Education Standards

Basic Chemistry and Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Basic Chemistry and Ionic and Covalent Bonds


This is an introductory lesson to get students ready to learn about macromolecules and how they can change through photosynethesis and respiration. They will learn how molecules bond and how it can change and bond with many different molecules. 

"Graduated cylinders and beaker filled with chemical compounds" by Horia Varlan is licensed under CC BY 2.0.


This lesson is an introductory lesson about chemistry. It is to get students ready to understand the basics for macromolecules. 

- 1 class period 

- Face to face 


Background for Teachers

  1. Standard 2 

Students will understand that all organisms are composed of one or more cells that are made of molecules, come from preexisting cells, and perform life functions

  1. Objective 1 

  2. Describe the fundamental chemistry of living cells.

    1. List the major chemical elements in cells (i.e., carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, sulfur, trace elements)

  1. Cross cutting concepts: System and System Models 

  2. Core discipline ideas: Chemical Reactions 

  3. Science and engineering core practice: Developing and Using Models 




Step 1 - Goals and Outcomes

Step 1 Goals and Outcomes

Objective (concept)

I want students to know that elements are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons. 

I want students to know that atoms can bond 

I want students to know what bonds are 

I want student to be able to explain the idea of valence electrons. 

Indicator (Bloom)

Students will recreate the periodic table of elements 

Students will model how atoms bond 

Students will demonstrate how polar bonds happen 

Step 2 - Planning Instruction

Step 2 Planning Instruction

Teacher preparation 

  • Materials: pebbles, sticky notes and game stuff. 

  • Target vocabulary: elements, electrons, protons, neutrons, valence, bond, ionic, covalent 

  • Technology Use: projector 

Student Background Knowledge

Student preparation : None

Strategies for Diverse Learners

Having the students work in partners to help those that may be a little confused on how to start. I know chemistry can be a bit confusing for students. 

I am also having studetns use keynote to help those that have a hard time taking notes or those that take notes slower to have all the information they need. 

Step 3 - Instruction

Step 3 Instruction


  1. Instructional Procedures

    1. Assign them science in the news, Due Lesson 6 ( has to do with soil, nutrients, nitrogen, carbon, ect. Must be okayed by me before they do it) 

    2. Give each lab partner a 2 sticky notes and have them copy down an element.

      1. The letter 

      2. The name

      3. The number 

      4. The weight 

    3. Give them all the worksheet for the day, you will be scaffolding them around the whole thing. We will have breaks and will walk them through it. 

    4. Have them place it on the top of their table and to not touch it until we get to that part in our lesson. 

    5. Go through the presentation and have students pull up the presentation  using keynote so they can annotate and take notes digitally. Have them make a primary slide with the element they chose, and as we go through the presentation have them note what each part of the element symbol means. 

    6. On slide 9 have them look at their sticky note and explain to them what their numbers mean. 

    7. Have them note what they mean on the first slide of keynote. 

    8. Have them find out how many protons they have. 

    9. Go farther in the slides and have them find out how many neutrons they have. 

    10. Now we are going to use them to make the periodic table of elements. (only ones that can use their valence electrons. So take one of their sticky notes (call the columns first) and have a sticky note on the wall already that have their column on it. Make sure they put them in DESCENDING order so they are just like the periodic table of elements. 

    11. Explain valence electrons and how there are 2 in the first shell H and He, and 8 in everything else. 

    12. Talk about bonding

    13. Ionic bonding 

      1. Have sodium and Chlorine come up 

        1. Have chlorine take the only stone that sodium has

    14. Covalent bonding 

      1. Have the carbon partners come up, give the other partner 4 more pebbles and have them hold hands! (sooo cute!!)

    15. Do the bonding practice and explain how polarity works 

    16. DeHart Double Take if time. 




Name ___________________________________________________  Period ________


 PART I     
 ElementElement Symbol # of Valence Electrons# of Electrons to Fill 
     Outer Shell (Remember that each wants 8 EXCEPT for Hydrogen & Helium that can only have 2) 


PART II:  Knowing that hydrogen and helium only need 2 electrons and that all the other elements need 8 electrons, predict how you might combine these elements. (In science we call that bonding. Elements have bonding moments… awwww!!!)


  1. (1)Hydrogen + (1)Hydrogen
  1. (2)Hydrogen + (1)Oxygen
  1.  (1)Nitrogen + (3) Hydrogen
  1. (1) Oxygen + (1)Oxygen
  1. (1)Carbon + (2)Oxygen
  1. (1)Carbon + (4)Hydrogen

PART III:  1st Law of Thermodynamics.












Step 4 - Assessments

Step 4 Assessments

  1. Assessment of Student Progress

Pre-assessment: make the paper for their element  

Formative assessment(s): nobles in their court 

Summative assessment : Creating a movie using I movie describing how molecules can change and move throught nature through photosynthesis and respiration. 


Instructions for the movie: 

You are making a kids show about science. You need to create a bie sized video that teaches kids about molecules, how they bond and how it is important to our world. You need to use imovie on ipad to create this video. You can add clips of experiments, images you have taken, and you can even dress up and make it fun. Please make sure the video is between 5-10 minutes in lenght, that it has an intro of som sort, and that you speak and act animated enough that kids would be excited to watch it. Please use the rubric below to make sure you have all the scientific and movie making elements that are required.