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    Education Standards

    Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass Unit

    Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass Unit

    Overview

    Throughout this unit on Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, students practice the same six skills with greater scaffolding and modeling at the beginning, and more independence toward the middle and end. The tasks include: 1. writing to an essential question to access background knowledge; 2. using context clues and root words to determine word meaning; 3. close reading with the aid of a glossary; 4. taking notes one of two graphic organizers (sequence of events and/or empathy map); 5. re-reading to answer text dependent questions; and 6. summarizing the chapter.

    Summary

    Throughout this unit on Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, students practice the same six skills with greater scaffolding and modeling at the beginning, and more independence toward the middle and end. The tasks include: 1. writing to an essential question to access background knowledge; 2. using context clues and root words to determine word meaning; 3. close reading with the aid of a glossary; 4. taking notes one of two graphic organizers (sequence of events and/or empathy map); 5. re-reading to answer text dependent questions; and 6. summarizing the chapter.

    Background for Teachers

    Note to Teachers
    Throughout this unit, students practice the same six skills with greater scaffolding and modeling at the beginning, and more independence toward the middle and end.   The student tasks for each chapter include

    1. writing to an essential question to access background knowledge;
    2. using context clues and root words to determine word meaning;
    3. close reading with the aid of a glossary;
    4. taking notes one of two graphic organizers (sequence of events and/or empathy map);
    5. re-reading to answer text dependent questions; and
    6. summarizing the chapter.  

    Additional explanation about each of these tasks can be found in the “Chapter Structure” section below.  If your students are unfamiliar with the characteristics of autobiographical writing and irony, you may want to pre-teach these concepts, as they are included in the chapter work.  At the end of the unit are a number of performance assessment tasks.  If you choose to have students write to one of the assessment topics, I recommend giving them the topic at the onset of reading, so they can take notes and collect evidence as they read. 

    It is not imperative that students complete all of the tasks for each chapter.  In fact, it may be useful to explicitly teach one or two skills per chapter and continue to incorporate them as group or partner tasks until students are ready to move toward greater independence with the skills.  Use your professional judgment as to which tasks are most appropriate for your students, and what order is most useful.   The amount of scaffolding needed will depend on your context.  However, according to the CCSS it is important that students move toward independent reading of increasingly complex text.  The scaffolding tools provided at the beginning of this unit are removed toward the end of the unit in service of independence.   

    Chapter Structure

    • Pre Reading
      • Vocabulary-It is important to help students become independent and self-sufficient in determining word meaning, especially in complex text.  For that reason the vocabulary in the glossary for each chapter is used in three different ways: if the word is underlined context clues may be used to determine definition; if the word is bolded the root of the word may be used to determine definition; otherwise, the definition is provided in student friendly language.  Manipulate the glossary for each chapter so students are required to determine the meaning of words with context clues and familiar roots.  NOTE: The words defined in the glossary for each chapter were chosen with language learners in mind.  It is important that you choose vocabulary that is appropriate for your students.  DO NOT feel it is necessary to include ALL of the words for each chapter in your student glossary.  
      • Write to essential question:  Writing to an essential question before reading allows students to activate their background knowledge, which aids in their comprehension of complex text.  When students have a limited amount of time to make connections with the content it increases both their motivation and their learning. 
    • During Reading
      • Empathy Map Graphic Organizer: As a genre, memoirs include an incredible amount of emotional reflection. Because it can be difficult for students to grasp the significance of this type of reflection, the Empathy Map is included as an optional task.  To compete the Empathy Map students jot down what the narrator or other characters “say” or “do” while they read, and then use that information to determine what the narrator or characters “think” or “feel”.  It may be useful for students to draw connecting arrows from what the narrator or characters “say” or “do” to the correlating inference about what the students conclude narrator or characters “think” or “feel”.  Students can also identify emotion words in the text and add that information to the “feel” column.  

    Ultimately, the Empathy map is meant to help students see the narrator as a multidimensional character and to learn to understand others’ perspectives.  Additionally, the Empathy map aids students in close reading to make inferences and draw significant conclusions.

      • Sequence of Events Graphic Organizer: This task will help students to identify concrete events in each chapter, as opposed to narrator reflections.  Distinguishing between the two will support students as they write summaries. 
    • Post Reading
      • Summary:  Summary writing is one of the most effective strategies to aid comprehension of complex text.  Students can use the Sequence of Events Organizer and Empathy Map notes to write their summaries.  Communicate the importance of including the most significant events of a chapter AND the most significant realizations or understandings of the narrator.  Both are critical aspects of autobiographical writing.
      • Text Dependent Questions:  Students should reread specific parts of the text to answer the text dependent questions.  These types of questions require that students use evidence from the text to support their answers, thereby ensuring that students are reading closely and carefully to justify their thinking.  It is recommended that students are guided in a close reading or work in groups or pairs to answer TDQ’s in the first few chapters rather than being asked to answer them independently.   

    SCAFFOLDED TASK SEQUENCE:

    • Students write to the essential question; discuss responses as a class
    • Teacher read words from the glossary aloud while students whisper read, so that students hear the pronunciation of unfamiliar vocabulary.
    • Read Chapter I aloud to students, or switch readers every few paragraphs.  All students should follow along silently, tracking with their finger or bookmark as they read.
    • Students refer to the glossary as they read to remind them of definitions of unfamiliar words. 
    • During reading, stop to add information to the empathy map, so students can see how to delineate what belongs in each domain. 
    • During reading, stop to ask questions about words with clear context clues or roots (bolded or underlined in the glossary). Model for students how to use context clues and roots to determine word meaning.  Identification of words with context clues or roots are removed from the glossary by chapter 4 so students can work to use identify word meanings more independently. 
    • After completing the reading, add the concrete events in the chapter to the Sequence of Events graphic organizer. 
    • Refer back to the text and reread as necessary to answer text dependent questions.  Scaffold students in answering questions at the beginning of the unit with class discussions and pair share conversations. 

    Use the Empathy Map and Sequence of Events note sheets to complete a summary of the chapter. 

    Instructional Procedures

    CHAPTER 1
    Note to Teachers: To adequately scaffold students in their reading of this complex text, it is recommended that the work for the first chapter be completed as guided or whole class activities. Additionally, students should have opportunities to read parts of the chapter multiple times. With each task, students may need to refer back to the text to reread or pull evidence directly from the text.

    Essential Question: Is family history important in shaping a person's identity? If so, how? If not, why not?

    Write to the EQ: What do you know about your family history? How does this history affect your identity?

    Glossary: If the word is underlined context clues may be used to determine definition; If the word is bolded the root of the word may be used to determine definition.

    Page 1Page 2Page 3Page 4

    deprived-lacking
    inquires-questions
    deemed-believed
    impertinent-disrespectful
    parentage-parents
    means-ways

    blunt-dull
    inevitable-unavoidable
    duration-period of time
    contrary-opposite
    seldom-rarely
    recollect-remember
    tidings-notification
    intimation-hint
    odiousness-hatefulness
    ordained-ordered
    invariably-always
    mistress-female owner
    disposed-likely

    mulatto-biracial with one white  
           parent and one black parent
    deference-respect
    flesh mongers-slave traders
    dictate-order to do
    ply-use
    partiality-favoritism
    multitudes-crowds
    statesmen-politicians
    prophecy-prediction
    lineal-familial
    ushered-lead
    cudgel-club or stick
    barbarity-cruelty
    joist-beam in ceiling

    exhibition-display
    conjecture-assumption
    infernal-fiery
    amid-among

    Empathy Map Example:

    Complete the Empathy Map as you read the chapter. Underline the emotion words from the text in the Douglass Feels column.   If you add information to the Douglass Thinks or Douglass Feels columns, but it is not explicitly stated in the text write inference behind it.

    Douglass Says
    He doesn’t know his age, just like a horse
    Slave holders want slaves to be ignorant
    His father is white, maybe the master
    He didn’t know his mother well, but she traveled at night to see him
    Children of slave women are, by law, slaves themselves
    Slave masters father many slave children
    Slave masters often sell their slave children to please the mistress
    His first master, Captain Anthony, was not rich and he was cruel as was his overseer
    Hester went out with Lloyd’s Ned and was brutally beaten for it
    Douglass Thinks
    Slave children were taken from their mothers to destroy natural affection
    That his mother must have loved him to risk punishment to travel to see him (inference)
    The Captain Anthony did not want Hester going out with Lloyd’s Ned because he wanted her for himself
    He will be next to be beaten after Hester
    Douglass Does
    Not ask his master his age
    Not get to go to his mother’s funeral
    See his aunt Hester be brutally whipped
    Douglass Feels…
    Unhappy and deprived that he doesn’t know his age/birthday
    Little more than if a stranger died when his mother passed away
    Like his mother suffered
    Slave masters are wicked and lusty
    Like slavery is hell when he first sees Hester being whipped
    Scared and horror-stricken when he sees Hester being whipped

    Text Dependent Questions (use evidence from the text to support your answer for each question):

    It is important to guide students as they learn to answer text dependent questions.  All students should answer each question, yet it should come back to a whole class activity or discussion, so students can adjust their thinking as necessary.  As you ask students to share their answers, be sure to press their thinking and ensure that they justify their answers with evidence by asking what in the text led them to that understanding.

    1. In the first paragraph Douglass writes, "By far the larger part of the slaves know as little of their ages as horses know of theirs,” What does Douglass mean in this statement? Then he states, “and it is the wish of most masters to keep their slaves thus ignorant."  Why would most slave masters want this?
    2. Toward the bottom of the second page Douglass acknowledges, “the whisper that my master was my father.”  Why does he use the word “whisper” in this sentence? Then he writes, “the children of slave women shall in all cases follow the condition of their mothers”?  What does he mean by the “condition of mothers” and in what way do “the children of slave women…follow the condition of their mothers”?
    3. “By this cunning arrangement, the slaveholder, in cases not a few, sustains to his slaves the double relation of master and father.” What is the double relation of master and father?

    Summary:
    Model the first summary for students.  Be sure to distinguish between Douglass’ thoughts and his feelings, which can be divergent, versus the more linear events in the story.  The during reading activities of empathy mapping and sequencing organizer will help students distinguish between the experiences and events of Douglass’ life and his commentary on those experiences.

    Example Summary: Frederick Douglass begins Chapter I of Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass by recounting his birth in Maryland to a slave woman.  Douglass was told that his father was a slave master, but his mother, whom he barely knew, never confirmed this.  As an infant Douglass was taken from his mother and raised by his grandmother on another plantation, so when        his mother died he had little emotion about it. Douglass’ first master, Captain Anthony, was a cruel man who Douglass watched mercilessly beat his Aunt Hester.  This was the first time Douglass witnessed the brutality of slavery first hand, and he intuitively feared that he too would experience such barbarity.    

     

    CHAPTER 2

    Essential Question: What tools do human beings use to transcend difficulties?

    Write to the EQ:  When you have difficulties, what things do you do to overcome them?

    Glossary: If the word is underlined context clues may be used to determine definition; If the word is bolded the root of the word may be used to determine definition.

    Page 5Page 6Page 7Page 8Page 9

    transaction-matter
    principal-main
    abundance-large amounts
    sloop-a boat
    vessel-boat, or container
    esteemed-respected

    overseership-state of being an overseer
    disputes-arguments
    evinced-showed
    determination-strength or willpower
    coarse-rough
    privation-need
    facilities-services
    summoned-called
    halting-hesitating
    woe-misery
    betides-

    quarter-rooms
    midst-middle
    manifesting-showing
    fiendish-cruel
    barbarity-viciousness
    profane-wicked
    commenced-began
    merciful-kind
    providence-wisdom
    course-way
    esteemed-respected
    reposed-relaxed

    conferred-awarded
    sought-wanted
    diligently-thoroughly
    peculiarly-unusually
    dense-thick
    reverberate-echo
    compose-create
    consulting-referring to
    pathetic-sad
    sentiment-feeling
    rapturous-joyful
    exultingly-with joy
    jargon-language
    incoherent-unclear
    feeble-weak
    deliverance-release
    testimony-evidence
    ineffable-overwhelming
    recurrence-return

    conception-idea
    dehumanizing-degrading
    brethren-members
    bonds-slavery
    chambers-spaces
    obdurate-stubborn
    utterly-completely
    astonished-shocked
    conceive-imagine
    cast-thrown
    desolate-deserted
    contentment-calmness
    prompted-caused

    Text Dependent Questions:

    1. In a short paragraph, describe the living conditions and rations of most slaves on Colonyl Lloyd’s plantations.  How did some slaves supplement their necessities?
    2. Douglass states, “The same traits of character might be seen in Colonel Lloyds slaves, as are seen in the slaves of political parties.”  In this passage Douglass is referring to the slaves that work at The Great House Farm.  How are they similar to “the slaves of political parties”?  Why does Douglass make this comparison?
    3. According to Douglass, what does the singing of a slave communicate? How does Douglass feel about slave songs?  In what way is slaves singing misinterpreted by some people? 

     

    CHAPTER 3

    Essential Question:  What are the effects of some people having great riches, while other live in extreme poverty?

    Write to the EQ:  Respond to the essential question in a free write.  Think about what happens when there is extreme wealth and also extreme poverty.   Give some concrete examples from things you know about the world, your community, or something you have read or watched.

    Glossary: Words with context clues or common roots are not defined in this section, so students may work to determine word meaning independently. If the word is underlined context clues may be used to determine definition; If the word is bolded the root of the word may be used to determine definition.

    Page 9Page 10Page 11Page 12

    cultivated-cared for; loosened soil
    abounded
    virtue-goodness
    vice-evil
    scarcely-barely
    stratagems

    sufficient-enough
    splendid-impressive
    equipage-carriage
    livery-uniform
    gig-a one horse carriage
    dearborn-a curtained carriage
    barouches-a large covered
          carriage
    inattention
    unpardonable
    supposition
    indulged-attended to
    curried-rubbed and cleaned
    brook-allow
    contradiction-disagreement

     ascertaining-discovering
    conversing
    sundered-separated
    unrelenting-persistent
    contented
    maxim-saying
    untried

    imbibe-swallow
    mutually-equally
    execrate-hate
    deemed
    disgrace-shame

    Text Dependent Questions (use evidence from the text to support your answer for each question):

    1. What is ironic about Colonel Lloyd's treatment of his horses compared to the treatment of his slaves?
    2. Slaves would often say that they were content and their masters were kind when asked.  Why? What is the slave maxim Douglass uses to explain this and how does the maxim justify what slaves say?
    3. Douglass describes how slaves would argue about whose master was greater, in spite the fact that they may hate their masters.  How does he explain their reasoning for boasting about their masters? 

     

    CHAPTER 4

    Essential Question: How does dehumanization render a person powerless?

    Write to the EQ:  Dehumanization is the process of removing or denying a person of human qualities.  How were slaves dehumanized? 

    Glossary: If the word is underlined context clues may be used to determine definition; If the word is bolded the root of the word may be used to determine definition.

    Page 12Page 13Page 14Page 15

    severity-harshness
    eminent-important
    indispensable-necessary
    persevering-determined
    obdurate-stubborn

    impudence-disrespect
    availed-helped
    immutable-absolute
    debasing-humiliating
    homage-worship
    servile-obedient
    descend-go down
    insensible-unaware
    reproving-disapproving
    sparingly-not much
    bountifully-very much
    reluctantly-not willingly
    savage-violent
    barbarity-cruelty
    consummate-complete

    scourging-torturing
    consultation-discussion
    deliberation-reflection
    musket-gun
    expedient-measures
    subversion-rebellion
    advisedly
    benefactor-supporter

    untimely
    arraigned-accused
    deficiency-lack
    scanty-small
    premises-property
    offence
    fiendish-cruel
    transaction-matter

    Text Dependent Questions (use evidence from the text to support your answer for each question):

    1. Why is Mr. Austin Gore seen as a "first-rate overseer"? Why is this description ironic?
    2. What does Douglass mean when he says, “"He dealt sparingly with his words, and bountifully with his whip, never using the former where the latter would answer as well."  How do Mr. Gore’s actions reflect the slaveholders’ maxim?
    3. Douglass states that Mr. Gore’s crime “was not even submitted to judicial investigation.”  Why? 

     

    CHAPTER 5

    Essential Question:  When good things happen to people is it because they deserve it, or is it chance or luck in play?

    Write to the EQ: Describe a time when something good happened to you and it was because of previous actions you had taken.  Share with a partner.  Now, describe a time when something good happened to you and it was a matter of chance.  Share with a new partner.

    Glossary: This weeks’ words are not identified as having context clues or roots/afixes.  In groups have students discuss which words they already know, and which words they can define from roots or affixes.

     

    Page 16Page 17Page 18Page 19

    leisure-time off
    fowls-birds
    impose-force, or push around
    gashes-cuts
    scurf-scraps, flakes, or scales

    nigh-near or nearly
    relish-to enjoy a lot
    proverb-a wise phrase
    eloquent-well spoken
    gratification-satisfaction
    compensate-pay back
    sustain-endure

    aft-the back of a ship
    bows-the front of a ship
    sloop--a type of sail boat
    imposing--impressive
    rapture--delight
    prospect--outlook
    galling--frustrating
    subsequent--following
    manifestation--display
    providence--fate
    remarkable--amazing

     

    egotistical--self centered
    interposition--interruption
    sentiments--feelings
    incurring--experiencing
    ridicule--mocking laughter
    abhorrence--hatred

    Text Dependent Questions (use evidence from the text to support your answer for each question):

    1. Douglass was approximately eight years old when he went to live with the Auld family.  How does Douglass contrast his childhood on Colonel Lloyd’s plantation with this arrival in Baltimore at the Auld’s?
    2. What does Douglass mean when he says “We were not regularly allowanced”? How were they “allowanced”?
    3. How is Douglass using the word “trial” in this section?  Why does Douglass “find not severe trial in his departure” from the Lloyd plantation? 
    4. "I may be deemed superstitious, and even egotistical, in regarding this event as a special interposition of divine Providence in my favor."  What event does Douglass consider a “special interposition of divine Providence,” and why might people think he is “superstitious and even egotistical”?

     

    CHAPTER 6

    Essential Question: How does education give us power?

    Write to the EQ: Frederick Douglass once said, “There can be no freedom without education.”  How would your life would be different if you could not read or write?                                                                                                                                                                                                              

    Glossary: This weeks’ words are not identified as having context clues or roots/afixes.  In groups have students discuss which words they already know, and which words they can define from roots or affixes.

    Page 19Page 20Page 21

    preserved--saved
    blighting--weakening
    scarcely--barely 
    manifested--showed
    impudent--bold, sassy or shameless
    tranquil--peaceful
    commenced--began
    accord--harmony
    discord--disharmony

    sentiments--feelings
    slumbering--sleeping
    revelation--realization
    perplexing--confusing 
    merest--simplest
    shunned--avoided
    diligently--persistently
     sought--pursued

    vestige--trace
    atrocious--terrible
    lacerated--cut up
    incur--experience
    odium--disgust
    mangled--injured, torn up
    emaciated--thin
    gip--a person who deceives
    offal--the innards of an animal

     

    Text Dependent Questions (use evidence from the text to support your answer for each question):

    1. Why does Douglass choose to alter his behavior around Sophia Auld?  How does he act differently?
    2. How does Mrs. Auld change, and why?
    3. According to Douglass and Mr. Auld, keeping slaves illiterate allow the slave holders to keep them enslaved.  What evidence do they give to support this claim?
    4. What does Douglass hope to gain by learning to read? 

     

    CHAPTER 7

    Essential Question:  Why is learning to read is so important to practicing freedom?

    Write to the EQ:  How does knowing how to read give you power in society?

    Glossary: This weeks’ words are not identified as having context clues or roots/afixes.  In groups have students discuss which words they already know, and which words they can define from roots or affixes.

    Page 22Page 23Page 24Page 25Page 26

    stratagems--strategies
    commenced--began
    depravity--wickedness
    brute--animal
    chattel--cattle
    divest--get rid of
    precepts--teachings
    apprehension--anxiety
    apt--quick or smart

    ell--a large amount
    bestow--give
    urchins--hooligan
    testimonial--statement
    prudence--carefulness
    unpardonable--unforgivable

    emancipation--freedom
    unabated--constant
    denunciation--criticism
    vindication--proof
    abhor--hate
    loathed--hated
    anguish--suffering
    writhed--struggled
    animate--living

    perplexed--confused
    wharf--waterfront
    scow--a kind of boat
    treacherous--disloyal
    hewing--cutting

     

    tedious--boring

     

    Text Dependent Questions (use evidence from the text to support your answer for each question):

    1. Why is it ironic that Douglass bribed the white boys to teach him to read? How is his life different from theirs?
    2. Why would Douglass avoid giving the names of the boys who taught him to read?  Why does Douglass find this statement ironic: "It is almost an unpardonable offence to teach slaves to read in this Christian country."
    3. After reading “The Columbian Orator” Douglass states this about his writings: “They gave tongue to interesting thoughts.”  What does the word tongue mean in this sentence?
    4. What prediction did the slave holder make about what would happen if Douglass learned to read?  Did it come true?  Explain. 
    5.  When Douglass states, "I would at times feel that learning to read had been a curse rather than a blessing. It had given me a view of my wretched condition, without the remedy. It opened my eyes to the horrible pit, but to no ladder upon which to get out," What is the horrible pit he speaks of? 

     

    CHAPTER 8

    Essential Question:  Does doing harm to another harm the wrong-doer as well? 

    Write to the EQ:  How are we affected when we choose to mistreat someone else?

    Glossary: This weeks’ words are not identified as having context clues or roots/afixes.  In groups have students discuss which words they already know, and which words they can define from roots or affixes.

    Page 27Page 28Page 29Page 30

    disposal--removal
    detestation--hatred
    valuation--deciding what something is worth
    indelicate--not careful
    entreaties--pleas
    sunder--separate
    wretch--wicked person
    profligate--wasteful
    dissipation--over use of something

    providence--fate
    infernal--hellish
    base--immoral
    fiendish--evil
    barbarity--cruelty

    hearth--fire place
    desolate--empty
    gropes--feels

    interval--period of time
    betwixt--between

     

    Text Dependent Questions (use evidence from the text to support your answer for each question):  

    1. In this chapter Douglass states, "At this moment, I saw more clearly than ever the brutalizing effects of slavery upon both slave and slaveholder."  What evidence does Douglass give to support his claim that slavery is brutal for slaveholders as well as slaves?
    2. In the second paragraph, Dougalss states, “We were all ranked together at the valuation.”  Who are the “we” he is talking about?
    3. Douglas describes in great detail what he supposes his grandmother’s experience to be after being set out on her own.  Why does he tell this story?  What was the effect of this experience on him?
    4. Why does Douglass include the poem by John Greenleaf Whittier after he tells the story about his grandmother?

     

    CHAPTER 9

    Essential Question:  How do people justify wrongdoing to others?

    Write to the EQ:  When people make excuses or justifications for their mistreatment of others, do you think they really believe those justifications? Give an example and share with a partner. 

    Glossary: This weeks’ words are not identified as having context clues or roots/afixes.  In groups have students discuss which words they already know, and which words they can define from roots or affixes.

    Page 31Page 32Page 33Page 34

    subsist--survive
    mouldering--molding
    bay craft--a type of boat

    conspicuous--obvious
    depravity--wickedness
    sanction--support
    pretensions--showing off
    piety--religiousness
    exhorter--encourager
    revivals--church meetings

    sagacity--wisdom
    pious--religious
    lacerated--cut up
    benevolent--kind, good

    pernicious--wicked
    tilled--plowed
    compensation--payment

     

    Text Dependent Questions (use evidence from the text to support your answer for each question):  

    1.  What is different in Douglass’ life that may affect him now knowing the date?
    2. Thomas Auld violates one of the few rules of decency that most slave owners adhere to.  What is this unspoken rule, and how does it affect Douglass?
    3. Douglass states of Captain Auld, “After his conversion, he found religious sanction and support for his slaveholding cruelty.” How does Captain Auld justify his actions as a slave-holder with religious reasoning? Give examples from the text to support your answer. 
    4. What does Douglass mean when he says, "Here was a recently converted man, holding on upon the mother, and at the same time turning out her helpless child, to starve and die! Master Thomas was one of the many pious slaveholders who hold slaves for the very charitable purpose of taking care of them."

     

    CHAPTER 10

    Essential Question:  What is humanity?

    Write to the EQ: What does it mean to be a human being (vs. an animal)?  With a group or partner, share your quick write and develop criteria by which you could judge human, (and/or humane) behavior.    

    Glossary: This weeks’ chapter is very long, so there are many vocab words.  Break the chapter in to chunks to make it more manageable.

    Page 35Page 36Page 37Page 38

    in hand ox--the oxen on the right
    off hand ox--the oxen on the left
    full tilt --full speed
    upset--turn over
    yoked--attached with a stick
    trifle--waste

    fodder--food
    faculty--ability

    forte--gift
    commenced--beginning

    elasticity--bounciness
    languished--declined
    habitable--able to be lived in
    shrouded--covered
    compel--force
    utterance--speaking
    moorings--a line holding a boat
    gale--wind
    gallant--gentlemanly
    betwixt--between
    turbid--muddy
    ague--feverish chills

    Page 39Page 40Page 41Page 42

    goaded--provoked
    reconciling--settling
    epoch--long period
    hopper--a piece of machinery
    hastily--quickly

    exceedingly--extremely
    feeble--weak
    overhauled--overtaken
    bogs--swamps
    briars--a prickly bush
    sundry--various

    humbly--weakly
    entreating--begging
    interpose--interfere
    wearied--exhausted
    unaccountable--unexplainable
    alternative--option
    solemnity--seriousness

    render--make
    earnestness--seriousness
    bade--instructed
    virtue--benefit
    curry--groom
    assurance--confidence
    quailed--to show fear

    Page 43Page 44Page 45Page 46

    rekindled--relit
    expiring--dying
    embers--ashes
    departed--left
    gratification--satisfaction
    afforded--given
    triumph--success
    compensation--payment
    repelled--disgusted
    resurrection--rise from the dead
    constable--officer
    unbounded--limitless

    staid--serous
    industrious--hard working
    scarcely--barely
    insurrection--rebellion
    conductors--devices that  
                    transmits electricity
    woe betide--when something
                    bad happens to someone
    part and parcel--an essential part
    professedly--supposedly
    benevolence--kindness
    downtrodden--oppressed

    dissipation--self indulgence
    virtuous--honest

    reverence--respect
    peculiar--strange
    fretful--worrying
    vices--bad habits
    pretensions--showing off
    infernal--hellish
    calamity--disaster
    basest--most immoral
    astonish--surprise

    Page 47Page 48Page 49Page 50

    wanting--lacking
    reverence--respect
    venture--attempt
    vindicate--justify
    conduct--behavior
    censured--faulted
    impudence--sassiness
    presumptuous--disrespectful
    flogging-beating
    professions--announcements

    mustered up--found
    availed--took advantage of an
                       opportunity
    deem--think
    imprudent--foolish
    ardently--passionately
    smite--hit
    reputable--decent
    liable--likely

    agency--help
    confide--to share secrets
    assertion--statement
    mutual--joint
    consultation--discussion
    commencement--beginning
    prudence--carefulness
    ascertain--determine
    imbue--fill

    feasible--doable
    disposed--willing
    liable--likely
    sentinel--guard
    hemmed in--restricted
    beckoning--calling

    Page 51Page 52Page 53Page 54

    notion--thought

    indispensable--necessary
    assuring--promising
    afresh--once again
    solemn--serious
    bosoms--chests
    agitated--upset
    hazardous--dangerous
    conceal--hide
    dismounting--getting off a horse
    constables--officers
    haste--hurry

    scrape--fight
    defiance--disobedience
    mullato--a person of mixed race

    calamity--disaster
    befallen--happened
    unanimous--agreeing
    hinder--get in the way of a thing
    concert--reaching an agreement
    scarcely--barely
    ascertain--determine
    fiends--monsters
    perdition--hell
    taunting--teasing
    impudently--boldly

    Page 55Page 56Page 57Page 58

    contrary--differing
    calk-- to seal with a white paste
    engaged--involved
    man of war brigs--large boats
    vessels--boats

    bowse--haul
    impropriety--offensiveness
    journeymen--skilled workers
    commenced--began
    hectoring--bullying

    surge--rush
    seized--grabbed
    interposed--inserted
    indignation--anger

    insufficient--not enough
    manifestation--development
    denounced--spoken against
    liabilities--charges
    redress--resolution
    mallet--hammer
    leisure--rest
    perpetual--continuous
    whirl--spin
    annihilate--destroy
    inconsistencies--conflicts

    Text Dependent Questions (use evidence from the text to support your answer for each question):

    1. When Douglass states that, "Mr. Covey succeeded in breaking me. I was broken in body, soul, and spirit. My natural elasticity was crushed, my intellect languished, the disposition to read departed, the cheerful spark that lingered about my eye died; the dark night of slavery closed in upon me; and behold a man transformed into a brute!"
 how does this passage portray the mental and emotional state of a slave who has been dehumanized? What images does the passage bring to mind?
    2. Re-read the passage Douglass writes after he fights with Mr. Covey. What does Douglass mean by, "however long I might remain a slave in form, the day has passed forever when I could be a slave in fact."
    3. What is the purpose of including the religious imagery in this passage: "from the tomb of slavery, to the heaven of freedom"?
    4. Compare the passage after Douglass' fight with Mr. Covey to his description of being "broken" by Mr. Covey? How does the language Douglass uses in each passage differ? How does the language demonstrate Douglass' mental and emotional state during each event?

     

    CHAPTER 11

    Essential Question:  Can people truly rise to great expectations?  

    Write to the EQ: Discuss a time when someone believed in your ability and you rose to the occasion.  Or, discuss the ways that you believe in yourself and how that helps you to succeed.   

    Glossary: This weeks’ words are not identified as having context clues or roots/afixes.  In groups have students discuss which words they already know, and which words they can define from roots or affixes.

    Page 59Page 60Page 61Page 62

    peculiar--strange
    induce--cause
    vigilance--watchfulness
    heretofore--before now
    galling--maddening
    impels--causes
    suppress--hold in
    deprive--deny
    imputations--accusations
    exculpate--clear

    emphatically--definitely
    persecution--suffering
    avowing--swearing
    assured--certain
    enlightening--informing
    whilst--while
    stimulate--motivate
    enhance--make greater
    hinder--harm
    profoundly--extremely
    flight--escape
    infernal--hellish
    commensurate--equal
    dashed--beaten
    agency--group
    render--give
    tyrant--oppressor
    entitled--permitted

    stratagem--clever plot
    exhorted--urged
    compelled--forced
    relinquish--give up
    perseverance--persistence
    industry--hard work

     

     

    occasioned--caused
    detained--held
    scarce--hardly
    wrath--anger
    forthwith--immediately
    retaliation--revenge
    blows--fighting
    raved--shouted
    resolved--determined

    Page 63Page 64Page 65Page 66

    bade--told
    contemplated--anticipated
    contend--struggle
    apprehension--anxiety
    appalling--awful
    sustained--suffered
    assured--confident
    depict--create
    perpetually--continuously
    conveyance--transportation
    subsided--decreased

    subjected--exposed
    ardor--love
    ferocious--cruel
    motto--saying
    liability--danger
    seized--caught
    pursued--chased
    famished--starving
    subsist--survive
    trying--difficult
    toil--work
    vigilance--care
    perseverance--persistence
    afflicted--suffering

    devising--planning
    hemmed in--blocked
    forthwith--immediately
    notwithstanding--although
    ascertained--learned
    assurance--promise

    hospitably--kindly
    lively--energetic
    dispensed--gotten rid of
    distinguish--tell the difference
    preserve--keep, maintain
    erroneous--incorrect
    scarcely--barely
    exceedingly--extremely
    accustomed-used to
    imbibed--absorbed

     

    Page 67Page 68Page 69 

    refinement--sophistication
    uncultivated--uncultured
    pomp--showing off
    conjectures--inferences
    palpably--obviously
    wharves--piers
    oaths--promises
    betokened--demonstrated
    dignity--self respect
    exceedingly--extremely
    cultivated--grown
    dilapidated--worn down
    thither--here
    refuge--protection
    venture--attempt
    assert--state

    intercepted--stopped
    timid--fearful
    vengeance--revenge
    stowing--hiding
    sloop--boat
    rapture--joy
    habiliments--equipment

     

    casks--barrels
    hod--bucket
    idle--lazy
    brethren--brothers
    bonds--slaver
    scathing--disapproving
    denunciations--criticisms
    principles--ideas
    measures--actions
    reform--movement for change
    seldom--rarely
    reluctantly--cautiously

     

     

    Text Dependent Questions (use evidence from the text to support your answer for each question):  

    1. What is Douglass argument about escaped slaves recounting their methods of escape, and what reasons does he give to support his claim?
    2. At the end of his autobiography Douglass spoke about his initial difficulties speaking publically about slavery: "It was a severe cross, and I took it up reluctantly. The truth was, I felt myself a slave, and the idea of speaking to white people weighed me down. I spoke but a few moments, when I felt a degree of freedom and said what I desired with considerable ease." The Pygmalion effect (otherwise known as a “self-fulfilling prophecy”) refers to he situation that occurs when great expectations are placed upon people, and as a result they perform better. How does Douglass’ belief in himself, and the belief that others have in him, help him to succeed in this new forum of public speaking?

    Assessment Plan

    POSSIBLE CULMINATING PROJECTS/PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS

    • Is Douglass successful in convincing his audience that slavery is not only negative for slaves, but also for slaveholders?
    • Douglass' narrative is a scathing commentary on the ironic role of religion in Southern slaveholding culture. Discuss Douglass' view in detail and give specific examples from the text that exemplify his perspective.
    • How does Douglass's story embody the pursuit of life, liberty, and happiness--the right which the Declaration of Independence granted to all but slaves and women?
    • In what ways does Douglass demonstrate his courage? Is courage a defining element of the human spirit?
    • William Andrews' asserted that the purpose of the slave narrative was "to enlighten white readers about both the realities of slavery as an institution and the humanity of black people as individuals deserving of full human rights." Does Douglass successfully achieve this purpose? Explain and give specific examples as to why Douglass's Narrative is or is not successful at achieving the purpose Andrews' stated.
    • Throughout the narrative Douglass makes several important points over and over. Review the narrative to find quotes related to these points:
      • justice for slaves is different from justice for whites

      • no one can be enslaved if she or he has the ability to read, write, and think

      • the way to enslave someone is to keep them from all learning

      • slaves were treated no better than, sometimes worse than, livestock

      • slaves were not granted basic humanity
      • slavery harmed slave holders as well as slaves
      • slave holders use Christianity hypocritically to justify their actions

    Bibliography

    Authors

    Kenna Rodgers