Author:
Danielle
Subject:
English Language Arts
Material Type:
Lesson
Level:
Middle School, High School
Tags:
  • Lesson Plan
  • Parallelstructure
  • Writing
    License:
    Creative Commons Attribution
    Language:
    English
    Media Formats:
    Text/HTML

    Education Standards

    Parallel Structure Quotes

    Parallel Structure Quotes

    Overview

    In this lesson, students will learn about parallel structure and various types of phrases in writing, as well as how to use Adobe Creative Cloud Express to create visually appealing images that incorporate text. Students will apply these skills by creating images that use parallel structure and different types of phrases in their text overlays. The lesson can be done asynchronously or synchronously and in-person or online. It should take approximately 89 minutes. The author of this lesson is Dany Macias. The image is from Adobe Creative Cloud Express. 

    Summary

    In this lesson, students will learn about parallel structure and various types of phrases in writing, as well as how to use Adobe Creative Cloud Express to create visually appealing images that incorporate text. Students will apply these skills by creating images that use parallel structure and different types of phrases in their text overlays. The lesson can be done asynchronously or synchronously and in-person or online. It should take approximately 89 minutes. The author of this lesson is Dany Macias. The image is from Adobe Creative Cloud Express. 

     

     

    Background for Teachers

    To teach this lesson, you will need an understanding of the following:

    • Basic concepts of parallel structure and various types of phrases used in writing.
    • How to use Adobe Creative Cloud Express to create and edit images and text overlays.

    You will need knowledge about the following key concepts/vocabulary:

    • Parallel structure: the repetition of a chosen grammatical form within a sentence, or across several sentences, to create a sense of balance and rhythm.
    • Types of phrases: noun phrases, verb phrases, adjective phrases, and adverb phrases, which are used to provide additional information about a subject or predicate.

    The following resources can help you teach this topic:

    • Adobe Education Exchange: This website offers free professional development courses and resources for educators on using Adobe Creative Cloud Express in the classroom.
    • Purdue Online Writing Lab: This website provides resources and exercises for teaching grammar and writing, including sections on parallel structure and various types of phrases.
    • Common Core State Standards Initiative: This website provides a detailed breakdown of the Utah Core Standards for Language Arts, which includes objectives related to using parallel structure and various types of phrases in writing.

    Teachers can search the following resources in Utah's Online Library for articles related to this lesson:

    • EBSCOhost: This database offers access to thousands of academic journals, magazines, and newspapers, as well as eBooks and other resources related to writing, language arts, and photography.
    • Gale in Context: High School: This database provides access to a wide range of resources on language arts, including articles, videos, and interactive tools for learning about grammar, writing, and literary analysis.

     

    Step 1 - Goals and Outcomes

     

    Learning Intentions:

    • Students will be able to use parallel structure and various types of phrases in their writing.
    • Students will be able to edit and enhance their photos using Adobe Creative Cloud Express.

    Success Criteria:

    • Students will be able to identify parallel structure and various types of phrases in a given piece of text.
    • Students will be able to use parallel structure and various types of phrases in their own writing.
    • Students will be able to apply basic photo editing techniques to enhance their photos.
    • Students will be able to incorporate text into their photos in a way that complements the image and demonstrates parallel structure and various types of phrases.

     

    Step 2 - Planning Instruction

     

    Prior to this lesson, students will need to have a basic understanding of photography and how to use a camera on a mobile device. They should also have some familiarity with parallel structure and various types of phrases in writing.

    Strategies for Diverse Learners:

    1. Personalization: Allow students to choose their own subject matter for their photography and written pieces, which will help them to feel more invested in the assignment and engaged in the learning process.
    2. Accommodation: For students who may struggle with writing or photography, offer alternative options such as creating a video or a visual collage. This will allow them to still participate in the lesson while playing to their strengths.
    3. Scaffolding: Break down the process of creating a script and incorporating parallel structure and various types of phrases into smaller, more manageable steps. Provide additional resources or one-on-one support as needed to help students understand and apply the concepts.
    4. Activating Background Knowledge: Before beginning the lesson, have a class discussion about the different types of phrases and their purpose in writing. This will help to activate prior knowledge and ensure that all students are starting from a common foundation.

    Evidence-based curricular options for diverse learners:

    1. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) - This framework encourages teachers to create flexible learning environments that can be customized to meet the needs of all learners, including those with disabilities or other challenges.
    2. Differentiated Instruction - This approach involves creating multiple paths to learning that are tailored to the needs of individual students. Teachers can use a variety of strategies, such as varying the content, process, or product of the lesson, to ensure that all students are able to access and engage with the material.

     

    Step 3 - Instruction

    Instructional Procedures:

    I. Introduction 

    • The teacher will introduce the lesson by explaining the importance of using parallel structure and various types of phrases in writing.
    • The teacher will activate students' prior knowledge about photography and Adobe Creative Cloud Express by asking students what they know about it.

    II. Pre-Assessment

    • The teacher will administer a pre-assessment to gauge students' prior knowledge about parallel structure, phrases, and photography.
    • The pre-assessment will include multiple-choice questions, short answer questions, and a mini-photo project where students will take pictures using their mobile devices.

    III. Instruction 

    • The teacher will provide a mini-lesson on parallel structure, various types of phrases, and mobile photography using Adobe Creative Cloud Express.
      • The teacher will model how to use parallel structure and various types of phrases in writing and provide examples.
        • A possible script for the teacher: Today we are going to learn about parallel structure and various types of phrases. Parallel structure is an important aspect of writing that helps to make sentences clear and concise. It also makes writing more interesting to read. Let's begin with a brief overview of what parallel structure is.
        • Parallel structure is when you use the same grammatical structure in a sentence or a series of sentences. This creates a sense of balance and rhythm in your writing. For example, let's look at this sentence: "She likes to dance, to sing, and to play the piano." Here, we have used parallel structure by starting each item in the list with an infinitive phrase.
        • Now, let's look at another example. I will model how to create parallel structure using a list of items. (Teacher writes on the board.) "I like to read books, listen to music, and take long walks in the park." Notice how each item in the list begins with the same grammatical structure - "I like to." This creates parallel structure.
    • The teacher will show students how to use Adobe Creative Cloud Express to edit and enhance their photos.

    IV. Guided Practice

    • Students will work in small groups to write a short sentence using parallel structure and various types of phrases.
    • Students will take pictures using their mobile devices and edit them using Adobe Creative Cloud Express.
    • The teacher will circulate around the room to provide support and guidance as needed.
      • A possible script for the teacher to use when correcting errors with parallel structure is as follows: Now that we've seen some examples of parallel structure, let's talk about some common errors that students make when attempting to create parallel structure. One common error is using different verb tenses. For example, "She was studying for her exam, doing laundry, and will go grocery shopping." This sentence is not parallel because the first two items are in the past tense, and the third item is in the future tense.
      • Moving on, let's talk about various types of phrases that can be used to create parallel structure. The three types of phrases we will be looking at are gerunds, infinitives, and participial phrases.
      • First, let's look at gerunds. A gerund is a verb form that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. For example, "Running is my favorite hobby." (Teacher writes on the board.) Now, let's use a gerund to create parallel structure. "I enjoy running, hiking, and swimming." (Teacher writes on the board.) Notice how each item in the list begins with a gerund.
      • Next, let's look at infinitives. An infinitive is a verb form that begins with "to" and functions as a noun, adjective, or adverb. For example, "I need to buy some groceries." (Teacher writes on the board.) Now, let's use an infinitive to create parallel structure. "I like to cook, to read, and to watch movies." (Teacher writes on the board.) Again, notice how each item in the list begins with an infinitive.
      • Finally, let's look at participial phrases. A participial phrase is a verb form that ends in -ing or -ed and functions as an adjective. For example, "The crying baby was so loud." (Teacher writes on the board.) Now, let's use a participial phrase to create parallel structure. "The children were playing, singing, and dancing." (Teacher writes on the board.) Notice how each item in the list begins with a participial phrase.
      • Great job, class! Now that we've learned about parallel structure and various types of phrases, it's time for some practice. I will provide you with sentence prompts that require the use of parallel structure and various types of phrases. Now you try!
    • Students will complete the handout titled "Grammar Quickies Parallel Structure" created by Claremont Graduate University. 

    V. Independent Practice 

    • Students will work individually to add text that uses parallel structure to their image
    • Students will reflect on their project by writing a short paragraph about what they learned and how they applied their knowledge of parallel structure, phrases, and photography in their project.

    VI. Wrap-Up 

    • The teacher will facilitate a class discussion on what students learned and how they applied their knowledge of parallel structure, phrases, and photography in their project.
    • The teacher will review the success criteria with the class and allow time for students to self-assess their work.

    Attachments:

    • PDF article on using parallel structure and phrases in writing
    • Presentation on mobile photography and Adobe Creative Cloud Express
    • Rubric for assessment
    • Link to Adobe Creative Cloud Express tutorial video

    Strategies for Diverse Learners:

    • For students who struggle with writing, the teacher can provide sentence starters or graphic organizers to help them organize their ideas.
    • For students who struggle with photography, the teacher can provide examples of high-quality photos and offer suggestions for how to frame their shots.
    • For students who struggle with speaking, the teacher can offer them the option to record their scripts in a quiet location where they feel more comfortable.
    • For students who struggle with technology, the teacher can provide additional support during the instruction and guided practice phases.

     

    Step 4 - Assessments

    Pre-assessment: Students will take a brief quiz on parallel structure and various types of phrases.

    Formative Assessment: During the lesson, the teacher will observe and give feedback on student work and provide opportunities for peer review and self-reflection.

    Summative Assessment: Students will submit a short reflection using proper parallel structure about their project. Their image with the sentence that includes parallel structure will be assessed using a rubric that measures student mastery of the lesson's learning intentions and success criteria.